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A feeding regime is a plan that specifies a diet, amount and schedule of nutritional intake.

(i) By hand
(ii) By automatic feeders
(iii) By demand feeders

(i) It is possible to adjust the feed requirements of the fish.
(ii) You don’t have to be present to feed your fish.
(iii)The level of the feed in the container is a good indication of the condition of the fish.

Monoculture is the cultivation or growth of a single crop or organism especially on agricultural or forest land

Polyculture is the practice of growing more than one crop species in the same space, at the same time.

Integrated fish farming systems refer to the production, integrated management and comprehensive use of aquaculture, agriculture and livestock, with an emphasis on aquaculture.

(i) It leads to specialization in the production of a specie
(ii) It is easy to monitor individual fish species performance/growth
(iii) There is no undue competition among the fish for space and feed
(iv) Fish of different ages can be stocked and harvested at different times

(i) It is suitable for extensive fish culture systems
(ii) It is easy to raise many fish species
(iii) It is less labour intensive
(iv) farmer is insured against total loss of fish stocked
(v) It is used to control prolific breeding habits
(vi) It allows for higher fish production
(vii) It reduces pollution as different fish species feed on waste and algae
(viii) It allows for better utilization of space

Integrated fish farming:
(i) Provides multiple sources of income
(ii) Minimizes cost of production
(iii) esults in optimum utilization of resources such as labour, capital and farmland
(iv) Provides multiple food products from the same farm
(v) It helps in energy conservation by utilizing waste from other enterprises
(vi) Farmer is insured against total loss of income/resources


(i)Trawls and dredges
(ii)Seine nets

(i) longlines
(ii) Traps and pots.

(i) Use mesh rod covers when transporting your fishing rods.
(ii) Keep your rods straight and together while on the boat.
(iii) Remove any hooks or lures after fishing

(i)The possibility of fishing in all available depths.
(ii)The possibility of fishing on any slope of the bottom.
(iii)The possibility of fishing in almost all habitats in lake/ reservoir.

(i) Handline
(ii) Yoke
(iii) Mesh
(iv) Braille lines
(v) Lead lines

(ii)Turbidity; nephelometer
(iii)Temperature; thermometer
(iv)Conductivity; METTLER TOLEDO
(v)Dissolved oxygen; METTLER TOLEDO


(i)It reduces food supplies
(ii)Degrading spawning beds
(iii)Affecting gill function.
(iv)It increases predators effect.
(v)It reduces feeding efficiency

Inbreeding of fish is the mating of relatives, or the mating of fish more closely related than the population average (which is another way of defining relatives).


Partial harvesting can be done when bigger fish are removed to allow smaller ones space to grow before total harvesting.

Total harvesting is when all the fish present are removed from it, being harvested either inside the pond or outside.


(i) Angling
(ii) Noodling
(iii) Flounder tramping
(iv) Spearfishing

(i)Epsom salts (Magnesium sulfate)
(ii) Limestone (Calcium carbonate)
(iii)Use of chemical additives
(iv)Pond filtration

(i)Open pond method
(ii) The ‘Hapa’ Method
(iii)Production of All-Male Fingerlings
(iv)Hormonal Sex Reversal

(i) Fish Liver Oil
(ii) Fish Body Oil
(iii) Fish Silage

(i) It prevent the blood from clotting.
(ii)Slow the development of plaque in the arteries
(iii)It’s used as an ingredient in animal feed, and is treated separately from fish meal due mainly to differences in the production process.

(i) Needles
(ii) Fishing Twine


(i)Too many fish will use up all the dissolved oxygen
in the water.
(ii)Too many fish will produce too much ammonia.
(iii)Too much nitrate might lower fish immune system.
(iv)Algae boom from too many nutrients
(v)Fish might get stressed when there is not enough swimming room
(vi)Fish might get aggressive if there are too many fish in one tank.
(vii)An overstocked fish tank will cost more to maintain

Capture fisheries is exploitation of aquatic organisms without stocking the seed.

Culture fisheries is the cultivation of selected fishes in confined areas with utmost care to get maximum yield.

(i)rapid growth potential,
(ii)higher resistance to dissolved oxygen deficiency and adverse water quality,
(iii)strong appetite,
(iv)omnivorous feeding regime.

(i)Fish net
(vi)Fishing rods

(i)Healthy source of protein ·
(ii)Used for non-food products ·
(iii)Jobs creation
(iv)Development of the agricultural part of the economy.

(i)poor fish farming methods,
(ii)inadequate technical capabilities and skills,
(iii)high cost of fish feeds,
(iv)low financing of fish farming projects by deposit money banks,
(v)inadequate storage and processing facilities,
(vi)poor quality of brood stock,
flooding and.
(vii)market failures.


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