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(i) Freedom of the press: The radio, newspaper and television should be free to write and Express issues without any hindrance.

(ii) Political parties: Where democracy is operational, there are more than one political party with different individuals competing for power.

(iii) Political liberty: it is an indispensable factor, the equal rights of all normal adults to vote and to stand as candidates for election, periodic elections and equal eligibility for political offices etc.

(iv) Value of individual personality: In democracy, the belief in the value of individual personality is restored. It implies the need to respect the other man,to listen to his arguments and to take account his point of view

(v) Free association and group: People should be able yo choose their own candidates or support political parties without being intimidated. Citizens can form parties and canvass for support for their programmes.


(i)Public Opinion Serves as the Foundation of Democracy: Sovereignty of the people, which is the very basis of democracy, really means supremacy of the public opinion. In every democracy, the government and its policies are continuously based on public opinion. The government remains in power so long as it is backed by public opinion.

(ii)Public Opinion is a Device of Effective Control Over the Government: Public opinion is the most effective instrument of control over the government. The government is really responsible to public opinion.

(iii)Public Opinion Determines Election Results: In every election only that political party wins which enjoys the support of public opinion. The political party which gets the popular mandate to rule has to exercise power only in tune with public opinion. It has to go out of power when public opinion turns against it.

(iv)Public Opinion is a Major Source of Law:
The laws passed by the government are in-fact based upon public demands i.e. demands backed by public opinion. Hence, public opinion is a source of law.

(v)Public Opinion is the Real Sanction Behind Law: Not only public opinion is a source of law but also it is an important sanction behind law. Only those laws get successfully implemented and produce desired results, which are backed by public opinion.



(i)Approval of loans: Any loan to be taken by the local government from any financial institution, must get the approval of the state government.

(ii)Auditing: Auditors should either the state or central government to audit the finances of the local government.

(iii)Specific functions: The state House of Assembly can ask a local government to perform certain specific functions.

(iv)Amendment of laws: The National Assembly through the central government can at any time decide to amend the laws establishing local governments.

(v)Withholding of grants: The central government may withhold local government grants if implicated in financial mismanagement.




(i)The Oba.
(iii)The Ogboni.

(i)Control of the King
At the top of the Yoruba political structure was the king, called the Alaafin. He was vested with most of the powers of the state and this included both the political and spiritual powers. There were three assistants who were in charge of the king’s administration. They were, Ona Efa, the Empires Chief Justice, the Otun Efa, the head of the Sango shrine and the Osi Efa, the controller of the palace finances. The head of the Council of Chiefs, the Bashorun, had the power to dethrone the king if the people lost confidence in him

(ii)Control of the Aremo
The Aremo was the first son of the king. In the event of the demise of the Alaafin, the Aremo was the one to step into his shoes. At a point in the history of the Yoruba, it was realized that the Aremo were assassinating their fathers so that they could sit on the throne. It was, therefore, decreed that whenever the king died the Aremo must commit suicide. This was the check the killing of the kings before their natural term.

(iii)Control of the Bashorun
The Bashorun was controlled by the Ogboni which was a gathering of the representatives of the various lineages. The Bashorun was appointed upon the approval of the Ogboni. The king or Alaafin could use the Ogboni to control excesses of the Oyomesi (Council of Prominent Chiefs) headed by the Bashorun

(iv)Control of the army and their Commander
The Army Commander was answerable to the Alaafin and the Bashorun. The army officers were appointed by the Alaafin but their promotions were carried out by the Oyomesi. If the army commander lost a war, he was expected to commit suicide or go into exile


(i) It retained the British Queen as the constitutional ceremonial Head of the State.

(ii) The Supreme Court was not the court of last resort; the judicial committee of the Privy Council in Britain continued to act as the highest court of appeal for Nigeria.

(iii) The constitution was weak because members of the House of Senate were appointed by the regional government not elected. They therefore became stooges and surrogates of the regional government.

(iv) The constitution did not give adequate treatment and definition of the issue of creation of more regions in Nigeria. This over-sight created problems when an attempt was made to create a mid-Western region out of the Western region.

(v) The Constitution failed to specify the number of ministers to be appointed and, whether or not their appointment should reflect the federal character of Nigeria.


(i) Military and technical aid: Some farmers colonial territories especially the French territories, receives military and technical aid from their former colonial masters

(ii)common language: Colonialism promoted the development of common languages among the colonial territories. English was developed and spoken in British territories while French developed in French territories.

(iii)Development of political parties: One of the positive impact of colonialism in British and French West Africa was the development of political parties. Many of these political parties emerged to champion the struggle for political independence.

(iv)Common wealth: This organisation was formed to bring together all former colonies under Britain and Britain itself. They cooperate among themselves in different areas of human endeavour eg sports ,scholarship programme etc.

(v)Emergency of the press: Another positive impact of colonialism was the emergence of the press,especially the print media (Newspaper). The press developed and became the mouthpiece of the people in the struggle for political independence






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