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(i)The road network passes through some highlands while some roads footpaths avoid steep slope
(ii)Major roads passes through commercial towns while minor roads and footpaths pass through rural settlements
(iii)The roads are connected to one another
(iv)There is road network on the entire map.

(i)It is accessible by main roads
(ii)It has four schools, churches and market
(iii)It has railway linking it



Hydraulic action: The wearing down of cliff/headland through the impact produced by the sheer force of the waves against obstacles along the coast. In other words the sheer force of water crashing against the coastline causing material to be dislodged and carried away by the sea. And the Compression occurs in rocky areas when air enters into crack in rock.

Corrasion: The wearing down of the base of cliff/headland using the impact of the materials carried along by waves. In other words the strictly mechanical wear of bedrock by moving detrital and other materials during their migration downslope under the influence of gravity, and their further transportation by erosional agencies such as running water, moving ice, or wind.


Altitude: Temperature decreases with increasing altitude at the rate of 1°C for every 165 m of ascent as the atmosphere gets heated by terrestrial radiation. The lower layers of atmosphere are denser and have water vapor and dust particles which absorb heat, which is not prevalent in the higher altitude. Example Missouri is cooler than Delhi.

Distance from the sea: Places located on the coast have moderate tem­perature as they are affected by land and sea breezes, hence, the tempera­ture is low. Places away from the coast have extremes of temperature. Madras on the coast has moderate temperature and Delhi has extremes of temperature.

Slope and Aspect:
A steep slope ex­periences a more rapid change in temperature than a gentle one. Mountain ranges that have an east- west alignment like the Alps show a higher temper­ature on the south-facing ‘sunny slope’ than the north- facing ‘sheltered slope’.


(i) Mechanically formed sedimentary rocks
(ii) Organically formed sedimentary rocks
(iii) Chemically formed sedimentary rocks

granite = gneiss
Clay = Slate
Shale = schist
Limestone = Marble

(i)Resistance: Metamorphic rocks are generally more resistant than most sedimentary rocks
(ii)Lustres: Metamorphic rocks are crystalline while sedimentary rocks are non-crystalline
(iii) Permeability: Sedimentary rocks are more permeable while Metamorphic rocks are more impervious.
(iv)Mineralogy: Metamorphic rocks contain non-ferrous minerals while sedimentary rocks contain hydrocarbons


Environmental balance is the stability in the amount of matter and energy within an ecosystem which guarantees continuous supply or availability of matter and energy.



(i) Required for solubilization of chemicals and several biochemical reactions like hydrolytic digestion of polymeric nutrients, photosynthesis, etc.

(ii) Important for the working of macromolecules, as a good ionizer, transport of materials, etc.

(iii) Acts as an agent of energy transfer and use. Water is a tremendous factor in neutralising heat radiations of sunlight, so also acts as a ‘temperature buffer’.






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