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SECTION A (Answer Only Two)

Total population of country Z = 5,500,000 + 8,000,000 + 6,700,000 + 4,800,000 = 25,000,000
Total Population of country Z = 25,000,000

Total land Area of country Z = 60,000 + 105,000 + 125,000 + 88,000 = 378,000km²

Population density of country Z = Total population/Total Land Area
= 25,000,000/378,000
= 66
Therefore population density of country Z = 66 persons per kilometre square

(i) Increase in birth rate
(ii) Industrialization
(iii) Employment Opportunities
(iv) Presence of social amenities

(i) Large labour; High population density provides large labour for industries
(ii) Large Market; High population is a source of large market for industries
(iii) Effective planning; Large population brings concentration of effective planning so that town, city, can function properly
(iv) Information; There will be quick dissemination of information in the areas where there is high population density either through people, internet or mass Media.


A settlement is a place where people live but it also includes the people who live there, the buildings, the roads, streets and pathways which link up the buildings in the settlement and through which the people communicate.

(i) Conurbation: It consists of several towns joined together but each town still maintains its identity eg Accra Tema, Lagos Ikeja, Serondi-Takoradi

(ii) Megalopolis: It is the largest form of urban settlement where neighbouring cities emerge and form one huge city. Eg Washington, Chicago

(i) supply of unskilled labour: most youth migrate from the village to the cities and work as head porters in the town.
(ii) provision of medicinal herbs; this rural areas supply urban centres with medicinal herbs such as time herbal mixture e.t.c
(iii) provision of foodstuffs; eg: rice,yam, cassava e.t.c in other words they provide raw material for construction.
(iv) provision of industrial raw material for production of fruit drinks eg: pineapple to produce fruit drinks
(v) provision of market production and manufacturing of goods eg; textiles etc

(i) Residential function: The large number of urban settlement promotes the need for residential houses to accommodate majority of people to check to creation of slums and shanty settlement

(ii) Commercial function: The presence of markets , banks ,hotels, insurance etc in urban settlement enables urban dwellers to engage in commercial activities such as trading, manufacturing etc.

(iii) Social-cultural function: Urban are places for the establishment of social and cultural infrastructures such as Universities, churches, hotel’s, mosques , museums etc


Tourism is the practice of travelling for pleasure or the business of offering information,accommodations,transportation and other services to tourists. In order words,tourism is the practice which involves the visiting of people to places of interest where they can relax,derive pleasure and entertainment.

(i)Favourable climate: For tourism to strive, the climate of the environment must be favourable so that tourists can relax and enjoy themselves.
(ii)Fine beaches: In Nigeria, there exist beautiful beaches along the coast. Such beautiful beaches include the Bar beach, Lekki and Badagry beaches.
(iii)Wild life: In Nigeria, there also exist beautiful wide life or game reserves such as Yankari and Borgu Game Reserves.
(iv)Effective publicity: For tourism to strive in Nigeria, there must be enough publicity to create awareness for the tourists on possible areas of attraction.
(v)Beautiful scenery: For tourism to grow, there must be natural and man made scenery where people can relax and entertain themselves.

(i)Inadequate funding: In Nigeria, the tourism industry is poorly funded. Poor funding has led to the poor development of the sub-sector.
(ii)lack of access roads: In Nigeria, there is basically lack of access roads to most resort centres. Many of the roads are in bad shape and this tends not to attract tourists to such centres.
(iii)Poor publicity: Lack of effective publicity or communication system for publicizing the scenery, wildlife and cultural attractions to visitors is a big problem in the country.
(iv)Inadequate personnel: One of the problems of developing tourism attractions in Nigeria is the inadequacy of competent and trained tourism personnel. Very few personnel are trained and competent.


SECTION B (Answer Only Two)




(i) Lagos State
(ii) Rivers State
(iii) Ogun State
(iv) Anambra State

(i) Lagos State; manufacturing industries and innovation industries etc
(ii) Rivers State; oil and gas industry
(iii) Ogun State; manufacturing industries like Gee-pee tank, Apex paints ltd, Drury industries limited, etc.
(iv) Anambra State; mineral resources industries

(i)Increase in Gross National Product (GNP): Industrial sector through their operations like payment of taxes increases the earnings accruing to the nation.

(ii)Employment opportunities: Industries provide employment (jobs) for many people.

(iii)International trade improves trade balance: Most of the products of manufacturing industries like machinery are usually from western nations. This forms the basis for international trade and improves trade balance between countries.

(i)Shortage of raw materials: Lack of sufficient raw materials available to industries hinders large scale production.

(ii)Insufficient capital: Access to finance or loan is very difficult. Capital (i.e. loan) is only easy for the big time investors, who possess collateral securities, to secure.

(iii)High degree of foreign dependence: Most products made in Africa are of low quality when compared with their counterparts in developed countries. Hence, people rely or depend on foreign goods.






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