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A office is room, set of rooms, or building where the business of a commercial or industrial organization or of a professional person is conducted

(i) Receiving Information.
(ii) Collecting Information.
(iii) Recording Information.
(iv) Creating Records.

(i) Recording Information: Both received and collected information should be properly recorded in suitable form. An office determines the form, number and nature of records to be maintained according to the needs. Some forms are specified in the respective statutes.

(ii) Creating Records :The information should be converted into according to the needs and prepare financial and cost accounts, production details, sales particulars, man hours worked, price list and the like.

Office machines are mechanical and electronic devices they aid office works.

(i) Used to produce paper copies of a document.

(i) used to guide the user when choosing mail classes and special services.

(i) A stapler is a mechanical device used for joining papers together.

(i) This are used for sealing large volumes of envelopes

(i) mechanical device used to cut paper into either strips or fine particles.

An organizational chart is a diagram that visually conveys a company’s internal structure by detailing the roles, responsibilities, and relationships between individuals within an entity.

(i)It defines the scope and limits of the job — explaining tasks to be performed at each position.
(ii) It indicates the extent of authority a position holder can exercise.
(iii) It describes for each job the interaction the position has with every other position. We know the interrelationship of all positions.

(i)It may create unwanted buck-passing and formal communications.
(ii)It cannot reveal the real relationships in the informal organisation structure.


(i) Speed: The speed of computers has made a vital impact on human society before some decades computers were just used for the purpose of some numerical calculations

(ii) Accuracy: Not only speed but a computer can work with almost 100% accuracy. This is also one of its advantages, as it can perform complex numerical calculations not only with speed but with unbelievable accuracy.

(i) Health Issues: Computer, when prolonged used, has negative effects on eyes due to radiation emitted by monitors. The eyes get dry resulting in blurry visions, the stress in the eye muscles results in weak eyesight.

(ii) Virus and hacking attacks: Virus is a worm and hacking is simply an unauthorized access over computer for some illicit purpose. Virus is being transferred from email attachment, viewing an infected website advertisement, through removable device like USB etc. once virus is transferred in host computer it can infect file, overwrite the file etc.

– Downloading Malware from Untrustworthy Sites
– Software that Hasn’t Been Patched Properly


(7a) Recruitment can be defined as the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an organization.

(i) Press advertisement
(ii) Walk in interviews
(iii) Promotions
(iv) Employment exchange

(i) Press advertisement: A wide choice for selecting the appropriate candidate for the post is avail­able through this source. It gives publicity to the vacant posts and the details about the job in the form of job description and job specification are made available to public in general.

(ii) Promotions: The promotion policy is followed as a motivational technique for the employees who work hard and show good performance. Promotion results in enhancements in pay, position, responsibility and authority. The important requirement for implementation of the promotion policy is that the terms, condi­tions, rules and regulations should be well-defined.



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