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Farming and rearing of animals; This constitute the means of livelihoods of about 80% of the population of the state. The state is a major collection centre for cash crops such as cotton, groundnuts and food crops such as maize, guinea corn, millet, and vegetables. The range of livestock in the state is cattle, sheep, goat and poultry. In other words it is has greatly increases their economic properties in the 18th century.
Agricultural production; These is another economic properties of kastina in the 18th century is Agricultural production The city is the centre of an agricultural region producing groundnuts, cotton, hides, millet and guinea corn and also has mills for producing peanut oil and steel. The city is largely Muslim, and the population of the city is mainly from the Fulani ethnic group.
Mineral resources; they are also blessed with abundant mineral resources that could be tapped for industrial growth. Prominent amongst these include: lead, iron oxide, gold, iron ore, manganese, kaolin, silica sands, fire clay, asbestos, feldspars, mica, serpentine, gemstones, precious stones etc.
The struggle for power between the Shuwa and Kanuri people in Borno caused a division that eventually led to the decline of the empire and borno lost its trade to Sokoto in the West and the control of the Eastern trans-Saharan trade routes which was the bedrock of the empire’s greatness was also lost. In other words the peasants were neglected and the dynasty made more demands on the meager resources of the poor. Although the dynasty ended, the kingdom of Kanem-Bornu survived. Umar could not match his father’s vitality ,and gradually allowed the kingdom to be ruled by advisers. Bornu began a further decline as a result of administrative disorganization, regional particularism, and attacks by the militant Ouaddai Empire to the east. The decline continued under Umar’s sons. In 1893, Rabih az-Zubayr led an invading army from eastern Sudan and conquered Bornu. Following his expulsion shortly thereafter, the state was absorbed by the British-ruled entity that eventually became known as Nigeria. From that point on, a remnant of the old kingdom was (and still is) allowed to continue to exist in subjection to the various governments of the country as the Borno Emirate.
Removal of sectionalism; the Clifford constitution is the fact that it brought sectionalism into the politics of Nigeria. The Richard constitution which immediately followed the Clifford constitution sought to correct this. The constitution therefore sought to promote the unity of Nigeria.
Introduction of federalism; The Richard constitution is credited to have introduced the federal idea into the Nigerian body politics. This is because the constitution made provision for the creation of three regions, each with its Regional Legislative Council. This gave the indication that Nigeria may become a federal state in the future.
More consultative than Clifford constitution; There was more consultation with the Nigerians in the introduction of the Richard constitution. Though this was the case, the Richard constitution is also criticized for not engaging in enough consultation with the broad masses of Nigerians before its promulgation.
Politicization of the Army;
One of the major reasons for military intervention in Nigeria’s politics in 1966 was the politicization of the Army. Following the independence of Nigeria, almost all the regions in Nigeria seeked to take total control of the military so as to use it as weapon over other regions. The Nigerian army was seriously politicized to the extent that appointments and promotions were based on tribe and political sentiments rather than seniority and merit.
Lack of free and fair election; After Nigeria got independence in 1960 the political system of the country was so damaged that even a free and fair election could not be conducted. In the election that brought Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe and Alhaji Tafawa Balewa as leaders of Nigeria, there was so much corruption and doubt about the result of the election.
Corruption; Apparently, corruption was also a major causative factor for the frequent military intervention in Nigeria in 1966. The military had to take over power because the rate of corruption in Nigeria was becoming unbearable. Nigeria was ranked the most corrupt country in Africa. Politicians became so corrupt and the economy of the country was mismanaged. The wealth of the country was spent recklessly and this encouraged incessant military coups in the country.
Political ambition of the military; I must not forget to mention that the military also intervened in the politics of Nigeria solely because of their political ambition. After independence, the military had the urge to take-over power from civilians, because they thought that they should be the once to rule the country since they have the responsibility to defend the territorial integrity and other core interests of the nation
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